Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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1163 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Using Rheology Measurement As A Potentially Predictive Tool For Solder Paste Transfer Efficiency And Print Volume Consistency

Jul 02, 2020 | Mitch Holtzer, Karen Tellefsen and Westin Bent

Industry standards such as J-STD-005 and JIS Z 3284-1994 call for the use of viscosity measurement(s) as a quality assurance test method for solder paste. Almost all solder paste produced and sold use a viscosity range at a single shear rate as part of the pass-fail criteria for shipment and customer acceptance respectively. As had been reported many times, an estimated 80% of the defects associated with the surface mount technology process involve defects created during the printing process. Viscosity at a single shear rate could predict a fatal flaw in the printability of a solder paste sample. However, false positive single shear rate viscosity readings are not unknown....

Publisher: Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions is a world leader in the development, manufacturing, and sales of innovative materials used in the assembly electronics, industrial joining and Photo Voltaic market places.

South Plainfield, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

101 EMI Shielding Tips and Tricks

Jul 02, 2020 | Holland Shielding Systems BV

Principle of shielding 1 The principle of shielding is creating a conductive layer completely surrounding the object you want to shield. This was invented by Michael Faraday and this system is known as a Faraday Cage. 2 Ideally, the shielding layer will be made up of conductive sheets or layers of metal that are connected by means of welding or soldering, without any interruptions. The shielding is perfect when there is no difference in conductivity between the used materials. When dealing with frequencies below 30 MHz, the metal thickness affects shielding effectiveness. We also offer a range of shielding methods for plastic enclosures. A complete absence of interruptions is not a realistic goal since the Faraday cage will have to be opened from time to time so electronics, equipment or people can be moved in or out. Openings are also needed for displays, ventilation, cooling, power supply, signals etc. 3 Shielding works in both directions, items inside the shielded room are shielded from outside influences. (Fig. 3.1)...

Publisher: Holland Shielding Systems BV

Holland Shielding Systems BV

Worldwide leading manufacturer of EMC (electromagnetic compatibility), EMI (electromagnetic interference), RFI (radio frequency interference), & EMP (electromagnetic pulse) shielding solutions. Our EMC experts will work ...

Dordrecht, Netherlands

Other

A PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE HEAD-IN-PILLOW DEFECT AND ANALYSIS OF CONTRIBUTING FACTORS

Jul 02, 2020 | Ranjit Pandher, Rahul Raut, Michael Liberatore, Navendra Jodhan, and Karen Tellefsen

Head-in-Pillow (HIP) defects are a growing concern in the electronics industry. These defects are usually believed to be the result of several factors, individually or in combination. Some of the major contributing factors include: surface quality of the BGA spheres, activity of the paste flux, improper placement / misalignment of the components, a non-optimal reflow profile, and warpage of the components. To understand the role of each of these factors in producing head-in-pillow defects and to find ways to mitigate them, we have developed two in-house tests....

Publisher: Cookson Electronics

Cookson Electronics

Leading materials science company that provides high performance materials, chemistry and technology solutions to the electronics and surface finishing industries worldwide.

Lakeville, Minnesota, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Lead-Free Risk Mitigation -- A Case Study

Jul 01, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A company approached ACI Technologies (ACI) for assistance with a new product that was about to undergo its initial proof-of-concept prototype build. This product was an item that was being furnished to the Department of Defense for a program designed to increase the technical capabilities of computer equipment issued to the war fighter. The requirements for this item specified the use of tin-lead solder during assembly of production units. One of the main responsibilities for ACI during this project was to assist the client in mitigating the risk introduced using commercial off-the-shelf materials that may be lead-free....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Using Metal Core Printed Circuit Board (MCPCB) as a Solution for Thermal Management

Jun 19, 2020 | Winco K.C. Yung, PhD

The designs of electronic devices and systems are being continuously improved by becoming smaller in size and faster in communication speed. The potential risk associated with these specific design improvements will be an increase in power density and, consequently, a greater risk of thermal problems and failures. At the same time, the prevailing use of circuit boards integrated with power devices such as motor controllers and drivers, light-emitting diode (LED) lighting modules, power supplies, and amplifiers, and regulators for TV, etc., drive to the use of a proper thermal management system while designing these kinds of printed circuit board (PCB)....

Publisher: Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

With 80 years of proud tradition, PolyU is a world-class research university, ranking among the world's top 100 institutions. Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) is a home for educating thinkers, communicators, and discovers.

Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

School

COVID-19 - Managing Supply Chain Risk and Disruption

Jun 12, 2020 | Jim Kilpatrick and Lee Barter

Responding to the immediate challenge While COVID-19 may be the catalyst for companies to revisit their global supply chain strategy and accelerate the adoption of Digital Supply Network models and capabilities, short-term actions need to be made to respond to the immediate challenge....

Publisher: Deloitte

Deloitte

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, commonly referred to as Deloitte, is a multinational professional services network. Deloitte is one of the "Big Four" accounting organizations and the largest professional services network in the

New York, New York, USA

Service Provider

Smart and Connected Bioelectronics for Seamless Health Monitoring and Persistent Human-Machine Interfaces

Jun 10, 2020 | Yun-Soung Kim and Woon-Hong Yeo

Recent advancement of flexible wearable electronics allows significant enhancement of portable, continuous health monitoring and persistent human-machine interfaces. Enabled by flexible electronic systems, smart and connected bioelectronics are accelerating the integration of innovative information science and engineering strategies, ultimately driving the rapid transformation of healthcare and medicine. Recent progress in the development and engineering of soft materials has provided various opportunities to design different types of mechanically deformable systems towards smart and connected bioelectronics....

Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology

Georgia Institute of Technology

Center for Board Assembly Research CBAR- advanced research on board assembly processes and systems

Atlanta, Georgia, USA

School

Lead-Free Control Plan

Jun 02, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A commercial systems manufacturer working on a major defense program contacted the Helpline for urgent assistance with an issue of failed parts during reliability testing. They were attempting to incorporate commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) computer-related hardware into a battlefield system and were experiencing reliability issues. It was noted that the parts were labeled by the vendor as "compliant to military (or MIL) standards" but not clearly identified as tin-lead or lead-free. ACI Technologies has supported a number of customers with lead-free issues and we assisted the customer in developing a short term and long-term solution to their problem....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

7 Benefits of Choosing Professional PCB Manufacturers and Assemblers

May 28, 2020 | Allen

Properly functioning printed circuit boards are essential for both manufacturers of electronic devices and also the developers if the overall intent is for the electronic device to function at high capacity. From designing the schematics of the printed circuit boards to testing the products, there is no process of PCB manufacturing and/or assembly that can be taken for granted. While it's true that you can attempt this process on your own, especially if you are in possession of a large scale manufacturing facility, here are a few reasons why it would be a better option to opt for a professional company for PCB manufacturing and assembly. 1. Variety A professional printed circuit boards manufacturing company will be able to offer you a huge variety. You will be able to choose from rigid, flexible, or rigid-flex. What's more, the PCBs will be customized as per the need of the application. 2. Quality Professional and good printed circuit board manufacturing and assembling companies might cost you just a little bit extra but they also guarantee to produce the best results and offer very high quality products. In the end, it is quality that will make the difference between mediocre and a high functioning PCB. 3. Cost Efficiency Since you don't have to waste time or resources on buying equipment to produce the best PCBs or hiring staff to oversee the process, you can actually end up saving money. You can even save on PCB assembly cost by hiring this job out. All you have to do is to negotiate the quote and sit back, relax, and wait for the PCBs to be delivered to you. 4. Eliminate Design Flaws Design engineers hired by PCB manufacturing and assembling companies use the best graphic software to develop and test the schematics of PCBs. This increases the chances of eliminating flaws in the printed circuit boards during the initial design phase. 5. Multilayer PCB Manufacturing and Assembly The process of manufacturing and assembling multilayer PCBs is as intricate as it sounds. All processes of manufacturing and assembling multilayer PCBs require the best machines and trained technicians to pass the quality and functionality tests. Manufacturing and assembling multilayer printed circuit boards yourself is going to cost you a lot. Even the smallest of mistakes during the manufacturing and assembling process might render the entire PCB entirely useless. 6. Save Time PCBs are just a single part of the electronic device. To complete the device, many more pieces would be needed. The manufacturers of the electronic device can hire out the job of manufacturing or assembling the PCBs, which will mean they will have one less chore to do. This, in turn, will save you a lot of time which could be spent on elevating the quality of the product. 7. Experience Experience makes all the difference. It is what makes the name of any company reliable in the market. Long experience of manufacturing and assembling printed circuit boards makes the company well versed in the process and it also makes it an expert to identify design, manufacturing, assembling, and testing needs of certain applications We, at Asia Pacific Circuits, offer these benefits and so much more. For quick turn PCB assembly, PCB manufacturing and PCB designing, you can contact us anytime....

Publisher: Asia Pacific Circuits Co., Ltd

Asia Pacific Circuits Co., Ltd

Asia Pacific Circuits is one of Asia's leading Electronic Manufacturing Services companies, committed to providing high quality PCB and PCBA Contract Electronics Manufacturing Services.

Shenzhen, China

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Assembly, Turnkey, Contract Manufacturer

Head-on-Pillow Defect Detection – X-ray Inspection Limitations

May 26, 2020 | Lars Bruno and Benny Gustafson

Both the number and the variants of Ball Grid Array packages (BGAs) are tending to increase on network Printed Board Assemblies (PBAs)with sizes ranging from a few mm die size Wafer Level Packages (WLPs) with low ball count up to large multi-die System-in-Package (SiP) BGAs with 60-70 mm side lengths and thousands of I/Os....

Publisher: Ericsson AB

Ericsson AB

Ericsson AB manufactures and markets radio and television communication equipment. The company was formerly known as Ericsson Radio Systems AB. Ericsson AB (Sweden) operates as a subsidiary of Ericsson.

Stockholm, Sweden

Other

1CLICKSMT Conformal Coating System -- Solution for photoelectric devices assembly

May 21, 2020 | 1clicksmt

1CLICKSMT has recently installed a conformal coating line for a photoelectric devices manufacturer in Thailand....

Publisher: 1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

Manufacturer of selective soldering machine, soldering robot, reflow oven, wave solder machine, pcb handling machine. Distributing for Turnkey line include SMT line, conformal coating lines, through hole line.

Dongguan City, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Screen Printing, Turnkey, Distributor, Selective Soldering

Pad Cratering

May 08, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A customer contacted the Helpline to perform analysis on a lead-free assembly which exhibited intermittent functionality. The lead-free assembly exhibiting intermittent functionality when pressure was applied to the ball grid array (BGA) packages. Industrial adaptation of a Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) compliant solder standard has created a new host of failure modes observed in lead-free assemblies. Pad cratering occurs when fractures propagate along the epoxy resin layer on the underside of the BGA connecting pads. While originating from process, design, and end use conditions, it is the combination of a rigid lead-free solder with inflexible printed circuit board (PCB) laminates that has advanced the prevalence of this condition. Pad cratering is simply the result of mechanical stress exceeding material limitations....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Solutions for Selective Soldering of High Thermal Mass and Fine-Pitch Components

May 07, 2020 | Bob Klenke, Technical Consultant, Nordson SELECT

The selective soldering process has evolved to become a standard production process within the electronics assembly industry, and now accommodates a wide variety of through-hole component formats in numerous applications. Most through-hole components can be easily soldered with the selective soldering process without difficulty, however some types of challenging components require additional attention to ensure optimum quality control is maintained.</p> <p>Several high thermal mass components can place demands on the selective soldering process, while the use of specialized solder fixtures and/or pallets often places an additional thermal demand on the preheating process. Fine-pitch through-hole components and connectors place a different set of demands on the selective soldering process and typically require special attention to lead projection and traverse speed to minimize bridging between adjacent pins.</p> <p>Dual in-line memory module (DIMM) connectors, compact peripheral component interface (cPCI) connectors, coax connectors and other high thermal mass components as well as fine-pitch microconnectors,can present challenges when soldered into backplanes or multilayer printed circuit board assemblies. Adding to this challenge, compact peripheral component interface connectors can present additional solderability issues due to their beryllium copper termination pins....

Publisher: Nordson SELECT

Nordson SELECT

Selective Soldering Equipment and Solutions for Printed Circuit Board Assembly

Liberty Lake, Washington, USA

Soldering, Selective Soldering

1CLICKSMT Odd form Component inserting System -- Solution for security products assembly

Apr 29, 2020 | 1Clicksmt

1CLICKSMT has recently installed a odd form component inserting and wave soldering line for a security products manufacturer....

Publisher: 1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

Manufacturer of selective soldering machine, soldering robot, reflow oven, wave solder machine, pcb handling machine. Distributing for Turnkey line include SMT line, conformal coating lines, through hole line.

Dongguan City, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Screen Printing, Turnkey, Distributor, Selective Soldering

Flexible Bioelectronics For Physiological Signals Sensing And Disease Treatment

Apr 22, 2020 | Guang Yao, Chenhui Yin, Qian Wang, Tianyao Zhang, Sihong Chen, Chang Lu, Taisong Pan, Min Gao, Yuan Lin

Flexible bioelectronics, including wearable and implantable electronics, have revolutionized the way of human-machine interaction due to the fact that they can provide natural and seamless interactions with humans and keep stable and durable at strained states. As sensor elements or biomimetic actuators, flexible bioelectronics can dynamically sense and monitor physiological signals, reveal real-time physical health information and provide timely precise stimulations or treatments. Thus, the flexible bioelectronics are playing increasingly important roles in human-health monitoring and disease treatment, which will significantly change the future of healthcare as well as our relationships with electronics. This review summarizes recent major progress in the development of flexible substrates or encapsulation materials, sensors, circuits and energy-autonomous powers toward digital healthcare monitoring, emphasizing its role in biomedical applications in vivo and problems in practical applications. A future perspective into the challenges and opportunities in emerging flexible bioelectronics designs for the next-generation healthcare monitoring systems is also presented....

Publisher: University of Electronic Science and Technology of China

University of Electronic Science and Technology of China

UESTC is a national key multidisciplinary university specialized in electronic engineering and information science and technology with a harmonious integration of science, engineering, management and liberal arts.

Chengdu, China

School

NEWS! Independent dual Z-axis selective soldering machine

Apr 16, 2020 | 1clicksmt

Based on the dual pot, we developed an independent dual z-axis control dual pot for FLEX-i2! There are 5 operation modes available with the independent dual Z axis: only solder pot1, only solder pot2, first solder pot 1 then solder pot2, first solder pot2 then solder pot1, solder pot1 and solder pot2 together. In specific applications, solder pot1 can be selected with large nozzle soldering heat-absorbing large parts, solder pot2 use small nozzle soldering heat-absorbing small parts, so as to achieve both soldering effect and productivity. Also can use same nozzle, dual axis simultaneously solder two same plate to increase productivity. To get the maximum flexibility and productivity! FLEX-i2 is a compact in line selective soldering machine, equipped with high precision servo control system, jet valve, live-on camera, upper preheating etc, which can provide a high flexibility and efficiency soldering process. The maximum soldering size can reach 420mm*490mm!...

Publisher: 1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

Manufacturer of selective soldering machine, soldering robot, reflow oven, wave solder machine, pcb handling machine. Distributing for Turnkey line include SMT line, conformal coating lines, through hole line.

Dongguan City, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Screen Printing, Turnkey, Distributor, Selective Soldering

Reliable Selective Soldering For High Volume Assemblies

Apr 14, 2020 | Gerjan Diepstraten

The number of through hole connections on a circuit assembly are decreasing with the drive toward miniaturization. When these assemblies are manufactured in high volumes the most convenient method is selective soldering. Although selective soldering is very well introduced in automotive and industrial applications it can also be a very efficient method to solder high volume consumer products....

Publisher: ITW EAE

ITW EAE

ITW EAE is a manufacturer of equipment used in the electronic assembly and semiconductor industries. The group brings together world-class products from Camalot, Despatch, Electrovert, MPM, and Vitronics Soltec.

Lakeville, Minnesota, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Stencil Printing 008004/0201 Aperture Components

Apr 14, 2020 | Edward C. Nauss, Michael Butler

This paper will focus on the application requirements of solder printing small aperture designs, concentrating on 008004 (inch) / 0201 (metric) size components, and the results of a design of experiment printing these challenging apertures. As Moore's law continues to be applied to component miniaturization, the next installment of reduced packaging has arrived in the form of the 008004/0201 for resistors and capacitors. Component size roughly the size of a grain of sand presents specific challenges to the solder printing process. To address these challenges, each aspect of the printing process will need be examined. This includes essential machine requirements, including correct squeegee blades, tooling support, and calibrations, to meet the demanding specifications. The correct match and design of materials will be addressed, focusing on the stencil and substrate design along with solder paste and cleaning solvent requirements. A design of experiment will be reviewed that applies the machine and materials discussed, including the printer and Solder Paste Inspection (SPI) setup and the specific machine parameters used. The results of these DOE's will then be closely examined....

Publisher: ITW EAE

ITW EAE

ITW EAE is a manufacturer of equipment used in the electronic assembly and semiconductor industries. The group brings together world-class products from Camalot, Despatch, Electrovert, MPM, and Vitronics Soltec.

Lakeville, Minnesota, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Selective Solder Fine Pitch Components On High Thermal Mass Assembly

Apr 14, 2020 | Gerjan Diepstraten

The number of through-hole components on printed circuit boards (PCB) has declined significantly over the last decade. Miniaturization in electronics has resulted in less THT (through-hole technology) and leads with a finer pitch. For this reason, the soldering of these components has also changed from wave soldering to Point-to-point selective soldering. Soldering these small, fine-pitch components is a challenge when surface mount components (SMD) are positioned very close to THT components on the PCB layout. This study, done in cooperation with a large automotive EMS customer, defines the process windows for through-hole technology for fine-pitch components. It determines what is feasible to solder and defines layout design parameter that make soldering possible with SMD areas and other components on the assembly....

Publisher: ITW EAE

ITW EAE

ITW EAE is a manufacturer of equipment used in the electronic assembly and semiconductor industries. The group brings together world-class products from Camalot, Despatch, Electrovert, MPM, and Vitronics Soltec.

Lakeville, Minnesota, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Soft Material-Enabled, Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Medicine, Healthcare, and Human-Machine Interfaces

Apr 08, 2020 | Robert Herbert, Jong-Hoon Kim, Yun Soung Kim, HyeMoon Lee,Woon-Hong Yeo

Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), designed in wearable and implantable configurations, have enormous applications in advanced healthcare, rapid disease diagnostics, and persistent human-machine interfaces. Soft, contoured geometries and time-dynamic deformation of the targeted tissues require high flexibility and stretchability of the integrated bioelectronics. Recent progress in developing and engineering soft materials has provided a unique opportunity to design various types of mechanically compliant and deformable systems. Here, we summarize the required properties of soft materials and their characteristics for configuring sensing and substrate components in wearable and implantable devices and systems. Details of functionality and sensitivity of the recently developed FHE are discussed with the application areas in medicine, healthcare, and machine interactions. This review concludes with a discussion on limitations of current materials, key requirements for next generation materials, and new application areas....

Publisher: Washington State Magazine

Washington State Magazine

WSM is published by the Board of Regents of Washington State University.

Pullman, Washington, USA

School

Low Temperature Soldering Using SN-BI Alloys

Apr 01, 2020 | Morgana Ribas, Ph.D., Anil Kumar, Divya Kosuri, Raghu R. Rangaraju, Pritha Choudhury, Ph.D., Suresh Telu, Ph.D., Siuli Sarkar, Ph.D.

Low temperature solder alloys are preferred for the assembly of temperature-sensitive components and substrates. The alloys in this category are required to reflow between 170 and 200oC soldering temperatures. Lower soldering temperatures result in lower thermal stresses and defects, such as warping during assembly, and permit use of lower cost substrates. Sn-Bi alloys have lower melting temperatures, but some of its performance drawbacks can be seen as deterrent for its use in electronics devices.</p><p>Here we show that non-eutectic Sn-Bi alloys can be used to improve these properties and further align them with the electronics industry specific needs. The physical properties and drop shock performance of various alloys are evaluated, and their results are analysed in terms of the alloy composition, including Bi content and alloying additions....

Publisher: Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions is a world leader in the development, manufacturing, and sales of innovative materials used in the assembly electronics, industrial joining and Photo Voltaic market places.

South Plainfield, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Product Design and Early Manufacturing Involvement

Apr 01, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

It happens much too often; manufacturing engineers are brought into a NEW product design phase at the very end of a design and are asked to provide input that should have been provided much earlier. One needs to understand how the circuit board design and quality of the manufacturing process not only effects assembly yield and product reliability, but how it could also affect the results of any testing that is done to circuit packs during prototyping. It is important that any circuit pack (including prototypes) that will be used in reliability, performance and functional testing be designed with the proper features and assembled with a manufacturing process that has been developed to produce a high-quality assembly. If not, the results of any testing might not represent the actual characteristics of the design and provide miss-guidance to future changes....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

1Click SMT Made Successful Installation and Training For Thai Customer!

Apr 01, 2020 | 1Clicksmt

Recently, our engineer Peter went to Thailand to provide after-sales support for our customer. In these days, we had installed a SC-900 selective coating line . Moreover, Peter gave patience and meticulous training to their staff, make sure they master the machine usage .Customer and agent are satisfied with our support and give their affirmation to us. SC-900 is a high Performance 4 axis Selective Coating Machine ,which is equipped with high precision servo control system , various valves , CCD system ,material tank weight detecting system etc, which can provide a high efficiency conformal coating process .The maximum coating size can reach 400mm*450mm with SC-900. So far, we've installed several dozen conformal coating line all over the world. It have excellent stability and performance. Check below link to get more info!...

Publisher: 1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

Manufacturer of selective soldering machine, soldering robot, reflow oven, wave solder machine, pcb handling machine. Distributing for Turnkey line include SMT line, conformal coating lines, through hole line.

Dongguan City, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Screen Printing, Turnkey, Distributor, Selective Soldering

New High-Speed 3D Surface Imaging Technology in Electronics Manufacturing Applications

Mar 26, 2020 | Juha Saily

This paper introduces line confocal technology that was recently developed to characterize 3D features of various surface and material types at sub-micron resolution. It enables automatic microtopographic 3D imaging of challenging objects that are difficult or impossible to scan with traditional methods, such as machine vision or laser triangulation.<p><p>Examples of well-suited applications for line confocal technology include glossy, mirror-like, transparent and multi-layered surfaces made of metals (connector pins, conductor traces, solder bumps etc.), polymers (adhesives, enclosures, coatings, etc.), ceramics (components, substrates, etc.) and glass (display panels, etc.). Line confocal sensors operate at high speed and can be used to scan fast-moving surfaces in real-time as well as stationary product samples in the laboratory. The operational principle of the line confocal method and its strengths and limitations are discussed.</p><p>Three metrology applications for the technology in electronics product manufacturing are examined: 1. 3D imaging of etched PCBs for micro-etched copper surface roughness and cross-sectional profile and width of etched traces/pads. 2. Thickness, width and surface roughness measurement of conductive ink features and substrates in printed electronics applications. 3. 3D imaging of adhesive dots and lines for shape, dimensions and volume in PCB and product assembly applications....

Publisher: FocalSpec, Inc.

FocalSpec, Inc.

Offers bare sensors for system integration, offline benchtop tools and online scanners for metrology and inspection applications.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Inspection

DA-1200 THT automated inspection system service report

Mar 24, 2020 | 1clicksmt

Installing time : November 24 to December 2 ,2019 Participants: Customer from (Elaraby , Egypt) Service engineer:Peter (1 Click SMT)...

Publisher: 1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

Manufacturer of selective soldering machine, soldering robot, reflow oven, wave solder machine, pcb handling machine. Distributing for Turnkey line include SMT line, conformal coating lines, through hole line.

Dongguan City, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Screen Printing, Turnkey, Distributor, Selective Soldering

Robust Reliability Testing For Drop-on-Demand Jet Printing

Mar 19, 2020 | Gustaf Mårtensson, Patrik Mirzai

In this study, the question was how to perform statistically reliable robust- ness tests for the non-contact drop-on-demand printing of functional fluids, such as solder paste and conductive adhesives. The goal of this study was to develop a general method for hypothesis testing when robustness tests are performed. The main problem was to determine if there was a statistical difference between two means or proportions of jet printing devices. In this study, an example of jetting quality variation was used when comparing two jet printing ejector types that differ slightly in design. We wanted to understand if the difference in ejector design can impact jetting quality by performing robustness tests. and thus answer the question, "Can jetting differences be seen between ejector design 1 and design 2"?...

Publisher: Mycronic Technologies AB

Mycronic Technologies AB

Mycronic, formerly MYDATA, is the key manufacturer of assembly machine for electronics. Our product portfolio contains Pick&Place machines, Jet-printing machines and component storage towers.

Täby, STOCKHOLM, Sweden

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Assembly, OEM

IPC Apex Expo 2020 Remarks

Mar 12, 2020 | Roland Girouard

IPC's APEX EXPO is always exciting & always fun and, most importantly, always beneficial to those who exhibit and attend. From technical conferences to standards committees to new and exciting things on the show floor - APEX 2020 was indeed a success...

Publisher: SMTnet

SMTnet

Helping businesses find each other.

Portland, Maine, USA

Other, Consultant, Marketing Agency, Publication or Online Resource, Service Provider

Filling of Microvias and Through Holes by Electrolytic Copper Plating –Current Status and Future Outlook

Mar 12, 2020 | Mustafa Özkök, Sven Lamprecht, Akif Özkök, Dolly Akingbohungbe, Moody Dreiza - Atotech Deutschland GmbH, Alex Stepinski - GreenSource Fabrication LLC

The electronics industry is further progressing in terms of smaller, faster, smarter and more efficient electronic devices. This continuous evolving environment caused the development on various electrolytic copper processes for different applications over the past several decades. (...) This paper describes the reasons for development and a roadmap of dimensions for copper filled through holes, microvias and other copper plated structures on PCBs....

Publisher: Atotech

Atotech

One of the world's leading suppliers of integrated production systems, chemistry, equipment, know-how and service for electroplating, semiconductor and printed circuit board manufacturing.

Berlin, Germany

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Manufacturer of Components, Components / Substrates

Cleaning No-Clean Fluxes Prior to Conformal Coating

Mar 09, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A customer called the Helpline seeking advice for cleaning no-clean fluxes prior to applying a conformal coating. The customer's assemblies were manufactured with a no-clean rosin based solder paste (ROL0) and were cleaned with an isopropyl alcohol (IPA) wash. After cleaning, a white residue was sometimes found in areas with high paste concentrations and was interfering with the adhesion of the conformal coating (Figure 1). For conformal coatings to adhere properly, the printed circuit board (PCB) surface must be clean of fluxes and other residues. In addition, ionic contamination left by flux residues can lead to corrosion and dendrite growth, two common causes of electronic opens and shorts. Other residues can lead to unwanted impedance and physical interference with moving parts....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Lubrication Grease Selection Guide

Mar 08, 2020 | Mike Sondalini

Lubrication Grease, use the right one for the job. Insight into lubrication classification. selection and application of greases. Compare the properties of greases and check those used in your equipment that are suited to the service....

Publisher: Business Industrial Network

Business Industrial Network

Offers training software and videos. Also, on-site training that qualify for CEUs to maintenance, engineering, and management professionals.

Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

Consultant, Publication or Online Resource, Service Provider, Software Manufacturer, Training Provider

Maintenance Policies and Procedures

Mar 08, 2020 | Larry Bush

A sample for Larry Bush's Maintenance Policies and Procedures - 2nd Edition (A 415-page book in PDF format. Those who purchase also receive 150 support files in editable format to customize and use as samples and templates.)...

Publisher: Business Industrial Network

Business Industrial Network

Offers training software and videos. Also, on-site training that qualify for CEUs to maintenance, engineering, and management professionals.

Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

Consultant, Publication or Online Resource, Service Provider, Software Manufacturer, Training Provider

IoT for Real-Time Measurement of High-Throughput Liquid Dispensing in Laboratory Environments

Mar 04, 2020 | Justin Shumate, Pierre Baillargeon, Timothy P. Spicer, and Louis Scampavia

Critical to maintaining quality control in high-throughput screening is the need for constant monitoring of liquid-dispensing fidelity. Traditional methods involve operator intervention with gravimetric analysis to monitor the gross accuracy of full plate dispenses, visual verification of contents, or dedicated weigh stations on screening platforms that introduce potential bottlenecks and increase the plate-processing cycle time.</p> <p>We present a unique solution using open-source hardware, software, and 3D printing to automate dispenser accuracy determination by providing real-time dispense weight measurements via a network-connected precision balance. This system uses an Arduino microcontroller to connect a precision balance to a local network. By integrating the precision balance as an Internet of Things (IoT) device, it gains the ability to provide real-time gravimetric summaries of dispensing, generate timely alerts when problems are detected, and capture historical dispensing data for future analysis. All collected data can then be accessed via a web interface for reviewing alerts and dispensing information in real time or remotely for timely intervention of dispense errors. The development of this system also leveraged 3D printing to rapidly prototype sensor brackets, mounting solutions, and component enclosures....

Publisher: SLAS Technology

SLAS Technology

SLAS Technology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening in partnership with SAGE Publications

Thousand Oaks, California, USA

Publication or Online Resource

Through-Hole Soldering Defects And The Solutions

Mar 01, 2020 | Will Bai, CTO in 1CLICK SMT

For though hole soldering, no matter it's wave soldering or selective soldering, the process is same formed by fluxing,preheating,soldering. How these 3 process will change the soldering result? When you face the soldering defects, what could be the reasons caused these and how to debug them? With below information you may get some hints....

Publisher: 1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

Manufacturer of selective soldering machine, soldering robot, reflow oven, wave solder machine, pcb handling machine. Distributing for Turnkey line include SMT line, conformal coating lines, through hole line.

Dongguan City, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Screen Printing, Turnkey, Distributor, Selective Soldering

Dispensing EMI Shielding Materials: An Alternative to Sputtering

Feb 26, 2020 | Garrett Wong, Jinu Choi

Shielding electronic systems against electromagnetic interference (EMI) has become a hot topic. Technological advancements toward 5G standards, wireless charging of mobile electronics, in-package antenna integration, and system-inpackage (SiP) adoption are driving the need to apply more effective EMI shielding and isolation to component packages and larger modules. For conformal shielding, EMI shielding materials for exterior package surfaces have mostly been applied with a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process of sputtering, leveraging front-end packaging technologies to back-end packaging applications. However, sputtering technology challenges in scalability and cost along with advancements in dispensable materials are driving considerations for alternative dispensing techniques for EMI shielding....

Publisher: Nordson ASYMTEK

Nordson ASYMTEK

A leader in automated fluid dispensing, jetting and conformal coating. Products range from benchtop dispensers and stand-alone dispensing workstations to fully automated, in-line conveyorized systems.

Carlsbad, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives / Dispensing, Assembly, Component Packaging

Coat-and-Print Patterning of Silver Nanowires for Flexible and Transparent Electronics

Feb 19, 2020 | Weiwei Li, Azat Meredov, Atif Shamim

Silver nanowires (Ag NWs) possess excellent optoelectronic properties, which have led to many technology-focused applications of transparent and flexible electronics. Many of these applications require patterning of Ag NWs into desired shapes, for which mask-based and printing-based techniques have been developed and widely used. However, there are still several limitations associated to these techniques. These limitations, such as complicated patterning procedures, limited patterning area, and compromised optical transparency, hamper the efficient fabrication of high-performance Ag NW patterns. Here, we propose a coat-and-print approach for effectively patterning Ag NWs....

Publisher: Integrated Microwave Packaging Antennas and Circuits Technology (IMPACT) Lab

Integrated Microwave Packaging Antennas and Circuits Technology (IMPACT) Lab

IMPACT lab is focused on cutting-edge research in innovative antenna designs, RF circuits, and sensors.

Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

Research Institute / Laboratory

Selective protection for PCBs

Feb 18, 2020 | Scheugenpflug

Glob Top, Dam and Fill & Flit Chip Underfill To protect PCBs from damaging outside influences, they are coated with a thin layer of casting resin or protective finish during the conformal coating process. In addition to sealing the entire circuit board, it is possible to pot only sections or individual components on the substrate. Different methods ranging from "glob top" to "dam and fill" and "flip chip underfill" have been developed for this purpose....

Publisher: Scheugenpflug Inc.

Scheugenpflug Inc.

Specializes in automated metering & dispensing solutions, supplier of resin metering systems, global expert in production and process automation, vacuum dispensing production systems, and systems for dispensing of abrasive media.

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives / Dispensing, Assembly, Component Preparation

Process Engineering - Why is preparation of adhesive bonding and potting materials necessary?

Feb 14, 2020 | Scheugenpflug

To meet the steady increase in technical requirements for electronic components, potting media properties must be extremely precise. Rheology, viscosity, filler content and curing behavior are only a few of the factors that play a role in their practical use. However, the growing complexity of materials often negatively impacts the ability to process or dispense them. In this case, material preparation and feeding systems specially designed for this purpose are required. These systems optimally prepare the material for the actual application and ensure homogeneous feeding to the dispensing system....

Publisher: Scheugenpflug Inc.

Scheugenpflug Inc.

Specializes in automated metering & dispensing solutions, supplier of resin metering systems, global expert in production and process automation, vacuum dispensing production systems, and systems for dispensing of abrasive media.

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives / Dispensing, Assembly, Component Preparation

How to achieve optimum results in automated dispensing

Feb 13, 2020 | Scheugenpflug

Efficient bonding, sealing and potting has a major influence on the sustainable function and safety of electronic components. The key to success here lies in the comprehensive view and control of process engineering. Here it pays to seek collaboration with the systems and the material manufacturer during the very early stages of the project. This is because dispensing systems must be selected for compatibility with the workpiece and the adhesive, sealant or potting compound used. And there are also other factors that play an important role in designing the optimum dispensing system:...

Publisher: Scheugenpflug Inc.

Scheugenpflug Inc.

Specializes in automated metering & dispensing solutions, supplier of resin metering systems, global expert in production and process automation, vacuum dispensing production systems, and systems for dispensing of abrasive media.

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives / Dispensing, Assembly, Component Preparation

Size Matters - The Effects of Solder Powder Size on Solder Paste Performance

Feb 12, 2020 | Tony Lentz

Solder powder size is a popular topic in the electronics industry due to the continuing trend of miniaturization of electronics. The question commonly asked is “when should we switch from Type 3 to a smaller solder powder?” Solder powder size is usually chosen based on the printing requirements for the solder paste. It is common practice to use IPC Type 4 or 5 solder powders for stencil designs that include area ratios below the recommended IPC limit of 0.66. The effects of solder powder size on printability of solder paste have been well documented.</p><p>The size of the solder powder affects the performance of the solder paste in other ways. Shelf life, stencil life, reflow performance, voiding behavior, and reactivity / stability are all affected by solder powder size. Testing was conducted to measure each of these solder paste performance attributes for IPC Type 3, Type 4, Type 5 and Type 6 SAC305 solder powders in both water soluble and no clean solder pastes. The performance data for each size of solder powder in each solder paste flux was quantified and summarized. Guidance for choosing the optimal size of solder powder is given based on the results of this study....

Publisher: FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Accurately Capturing System-Level Failure of Solder Joints

Feb 05, 2020 | Maxim Serebreni

Consortium Projects - Thermal Cycling Reliability</p> <ul> <li>Consortium projects allow for joint research to investigate the reliability of multiple solder alloys under a variety of environmental stress conditions. </li> <li>Project jointly sponsored by iNEMI and HDP User Group and including CALCE and Universal consortium currently assessing 15 third-generation solder alloys..</li> </ul>...

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Service Provider

Mechanical Drop Shock Testing

Feb 03, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Accurate impact testing is a key component to establishing that a product is not only reliable, but durable in an end-use environment. ACI Technologies tested a high-g circuit board to demonstrate component durability and ruggedization for guided munitions. The Lansmont Model 23 Shock Test System customized with a Dual Mass Shock Amplifier was used for this testing (Figure 1)....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Key Advances in Void Reduction in the Reflow Process Using Multi-Stage Controlled Vacuum

Jan 28, 2020 | Heller Industries

This paper explores new advances in the reflow soldering process including vacuum technology and warpage mitigation systems. The first topic for discussion will be the implementation of a vacuum process directly in a conventional inline soldering system. The second topic presented is the mitigation of warpage on substrates or wafers....

Publisher: Heller Industries Inc.

Heller Industries Inc.

Reflow ovens for automated SMT PCB assembly, specializing in lead free processing and nitrogen reflow. The best convection reflow ovens on the market.

Florham Park, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, OEM

Analysis of Inspection of DPA Test Requirements Applied To Flip Chip Technologies

Jan 22, 2020 | Gonzalo Fernandez, Ana Collado

Flip chip assembly techniques bring a wide range of benefits:</p> <ul> <li>Reduced parasitic interconnection between the semiconductor die and package.</li> <li>Provides a high final assembly integrity density.</li> <li>Minimize the interconnection length, providing better electrical performances, especially for high speed signals.</li> <li>Reduce the device size and weight,…, etc.</li> </ul> <p>But there is no dedicated inspection requirements nor DPA standard which address all the necessary aspects associated to this construction type or only cover partially the topics to be inspected....

Publisher: ALTER TECHNOLOGY

ALTER TECHNOLOGY

A leading company in the fields of engineering, procurement and testing of high reliability components and electronic equipment within the space and other high reliability markets.

41092, Spain

Test Services

Ultra-Thin Chips For High-Performance Flexible Electronics

Jan 15, 2020 | Shoubhik Gupta, William Taube Navaraj, Leandro Lorenzelli, Ravinder Dahiya

Flexible electronics has significantly advanced over the last few years, as devices and circuits from nanoscale structures to printed thin films have started to appear. Simultaneously, the demand for high-performance electronics has also increased because flexible and compact integrated circuits are needed to obtain fully flexible electronic systems. It is challenging to obtain flexible and compact integrated circuits as the silicon based CMOS electronics, which is currently the industry standard for high-performance, is planar and the brittle nature of silicon makes bendability difficult. For this reason, the ultra-thin chips from silicon is gaining interest. This review provides an in-depth analysis of various approaches for obtaining ultra-thin chips from rigid silicon wafer. The comprehensive study presented here includes analysis of ultra-thin chips properties such as the electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties, stress modelling, and packaging techniques. The underpinning advances in areas such as sensing, computing, data storage, and energy have been discussed along with several emerging applications (e.g., wearable systems, m-Health, smart cities and Internet of Things etc.) they will enable. This paper is targeted to the readers working in the field of integrated circuits on thin and bendable silicon; but it can be of broad interest to everyone working in the field of flexible electronics....

Publisher: Bendable Electronics and Sensing Technologies (BEST)

Bendable Electronics and Sensing Technologies (BEST)

Our research revolves around the development of high-performance electronics and sensing systems on large area flexible substrates.

Glasgow, Scotland

School

Atomic Layer Deposition

Jan 13, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Is it possible to coat electronic assemblies with a thin, uniform in thickness, pinhole-free, moisture impervious, truly hermetic (by the MIL-STD-883 definition) film of ceramic material that is far more affordable than placing the same electronic assemblies in the currently used glass-to-metal sealed, thick, heavy, metal-and-ceramic-based hermetic enclosures? Since the coating (called a “conformal coating”) would be both hermetic (moisture proof) and hundreds or thousands of times thinner than the currently used enclosures, it would be both less expensive, lighter, and still just as effective in excluding moisture (hermetic) as the current heavy, bulky, expensive electronic enclosures are....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Copper/Epoxy Joints in Printed Circuit Boards: Manufacturing and Interfacial Failure Mechanisms

Jan 09, 2020 | Philipp Nothdurft, Gisbert Riess, Wolfgang Kern

PCBs have a wide range of applications in electronics where they are used for electric signal transfer. For a multilayer build-up, thin copper foils are alternated with epoxy-based prepregs and laminated to each other. Adhesion between copper and epoxy composites is achieved by technologies based on mechanical interlocking or chemical bonding, however for future development, the understanding of failure mechanisms between these materials is of high importance. In literature, various interfacial failures are reported which lead to adhesion loss between copper and epoxy resins. This review aims to give an overview on common coupling technologies and possible failure mechanisms. The information reviewed can in turn lead to the development of new strategies, enhancing the adhesion strength of copper/epoxy joints and, therefore, establishing a basis for future PCB manufacturing....

Publisher: Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH

Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH

PCCL is the leading Austrian "Center of Excellence" for cooperative research in the area of polymer engineering and sciences.

Leoben, Austria

Research Institute / Laboratory

Using mini PCB magazine loader to save more space for your SMT assembly line

Jan 06, 2020 | ASCEN technology company

ASCEN technology make the mini PCB magazine loader without magazine rack to save more space for most of production line,PCB mini loader can use as the PCB unloader or loading machine in different station and let the factory maximized to using the space...

Publisher: ASCEN Technology

ASCEN Technology

Manufacturer of automated production systems;PCB magazine loader,PCB separator,PCB cutting machine,PCB unloaders, PCB conveyors,PCB depaneling machines,PCB turn conveyors,PCB conformal coaters,PCB solder paste printer,PCB buffer

Dongguan, Guangdong, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Screen Printing, OEM, Manufacturer of Test Equipment, Selective Soldering

Counterfeit Component Analysis

Jan 02, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A customer contacted the Helpline with the concern that parts being used in their assembly may possibly be counterfeit components. The counterfeiting of electronics components is a world-wide problem, and the threat today is even more evident than ever before. Any company, large or small, that manufactures assemblies using electronics components is equally susceptible to using counterfeit devices in their assemblies. In most cases, counterfeit components aren’t discovered until after the component has already been placed on a printed circuit board (PCB), usually during first article electrical test. At this point, the only recourse is to debug the circuit to determine the faulty component and rework each PCB already in production to replace the faulty component. As one might easily surmise, this is a rather costly process; world-wide, counterfeit components account for over $15B loss in sales annually! ...

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Temperature Cycling and Fatigue in Electronics

Jan 01, 2020 | Gilad Sharon, Ph.D., Greg Caswell

The majority of electronic failures occur due to thermally induced stresses and strains caused by excessive differences in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) across materials.</p><p>CTE mismatches occur in both 1st and 2nd level interconnects in electronics assemblies. 1st level interconnects connect the die to a substrate. This substrate can be underfilled so there are both global and local CTE mismatches to consider. 2nd level interconnects connect the substrate, or package, to the printed circuit board (PCB). This would be considered a "board level" CTE mismatch. Several stress and strain mitigation techniques exist including the use of conformal coating....

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Service Provider

PCBONLINE rigid capability

Dec 30, 2019 | Ada

(ROHS, Halogen Free & Reach Compliance) FR-4 (Tg130-180): ShengYi, ITEQ, KB, Huazheng High Speed FR4, Ceramics & Telflon, Rogers...

Publisher: PCB ONLINE LIMITED

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Non-heated dispensing system

Selective Conformal Coating System - GPD SimpleCoat